CBD production: oil
CBD Production: Oil
The CBD and other cannabinoids, terpenes and phytochemicals are now dissolved by extraction. There are different methods that separate the mentioned substances from the biomass. The process determines the degree of purity and quality of the finished CBD oil.
We present the four different ways of CBD extraction and then explain how the oil is produced at ALPINOLS:
In oil extraction, a vegetable oil is usually used to extract the cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are fat soluble, so they can be mixed with an oil and heated to about 100°C. The cannabinoids will then dissolve in the oil, allowing it to be used further. However, vegetable oil is quickly perishable and the CBD content with this extraction also turns out to be low.
In this extraction process, the CBD is dissolved with solvents such as ethanol. The finely chopped leaves that contain the CBD are mixed with the solvent and then heated until only the CBD extract remains. However, not only CBD is extracted here, but also the chlorophyll, which can be harmful to humans in large amounts. In addition, residues of the solvent may be present, which would be highly harmful to health.
Tip: When choosing a CBD product, the production should play a role. Reputable suppliers use the CO2 extraction.
As the name suggests, carbon dioxide is used in this process. That doesn't sound so good at first, if you associate CO2 with exhaust gases. We'll tell you why CO2 extraction is the highest-quality extraction process.
Carbon dioxide offers an important advantage: at normal room temperature it is completely gaseous, but under high pressure it becomes a liquid.
liquid. For CO2 extraction, the CO2 therefore flows under high pressure in liquid form over the biomass to dissolve the various components.
dissolve. In this form, CO2 acts as a solvent for the CBD.
Afterwards, it becomes completely gaseous again at normal temperature and no residues remain in the extract, as is the case with solvent extraction, for example. All that remains is the pure CBD extract with all the other cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids.
However, CO2 extraction is a very expensive and complicated process. Therefore, it is not yet used for every CBD oil. Expensive
expensive machines and expert knowledge are needed to be able to use the high-quality extraction process.
There are three different categories of this CBD extraction for CBD production: supercritical, subcritical and
medium-critical CO2 extraction.
Supercritical CO2 extraction
Supercritical extraction (also supercritical) is a form in which the CO is still in gaseous form above a critical point. However, it is as densely packed as it would be in liquid form. In simple words, the CO2 is still gaseous, but already so densely packed that it almost becomes liquid. This short moment before the CO2 becomes liquid is called the critical point.
In order to maintain this critical point, certain pressure and temperature conditions must be present. The pressure must be above 73.75 bar and the temperature must be above 30.980°C. This is how the supercritical carbon dioxide is produced.
This method of CBD production produces the highest yield, as larger molecules such as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are also extracted. Shortcoming: This method also destroys other components that are more sensitive. Terpenes and phytocannabinoids do not survive this CO2 extraction.
Medium-critical CO2 extraction
The medium-critical variant, as the name suggests, takes place in the middle of the temperature and pressure ratios of supercritical and subcritical extraction. However, supercritical CO2 extraction remains more commonly used.
Subcritical CO2 extraction
The subcritical form is also called cold extraction. A lower temperature is used than in the supercritical method at the same pressure, so that the CO2 becomes liquid. It does not completely lose its properties as a solvent. The pressure is therefore above 73.75 bar and the temperature below 30.980°C.
The production process takes longer overall than with supercritical extraction, but it has a decisive advantage: the lower temperature preserves sensitive components of the hemp that would be lost if the temperature were too high.
Total CO2 extraction
A CO2 total extraction uses both supercritical and subcritical extraction. Here, the sensitive components of the hemp plant, such as terpenes and plant cannabinoids, are extracted first via the subcritical variant. This is followed by the supercritical method of the same hemp mass, which filters out larger and less sensitive components. In the end, both extracts are mixed to form a common CBD extract.